Investment casting or what is popularly known as lost wax process is amongst the oldest techniques of manufacturing. This process is known for producing complicated shapes which are difficult in making with die casting. Although this process is comparatively expensive compared to sand or die casting, yet it is helpful for creating complicated and intricate designs and shapes.

Basic steps

Wax injection
Firstly, the wax replica of the required casting is produced with the help of injection molding. Such wax replicas are known as patterns.

Secondly, the wax pattern is attached to a sprue (central wax stick) for forming an assembly or casting cluster.

Shell building
Thirdly, a shell is made by dipping the assembly inside a container comprising of liquid ceramic slurry followed by putting it into a bed comprising of very fine sand approximately up to at least 8 layers can be applied in such a manner.

Fourthly, the wax is immediately melted out the moment the ceramic is dried out, forming a negative impact of the assembly inside the shell.

In case of the conventional process, molten metal is filled in the shell via gravity pouring. When the metal cools down, the pouring cup, sprue, gates and parts turn into one solid casting.

When the metal gets cooled and solidified, next the ceramic shells are broken with the help of water blasting or vibration.

The parts are traditionally cut away and separated from the main sprue with the help of a friction saw of high speed.
Finished Castings
The metal castings that are identical to that of the original one is finally complete post minor finishing operations.

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